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Kansa. A southwestern Siouan tribe; one of the five, according to Dorsey's arrangement, of the Dhegiha group. Their linguistic relations are closest with the Osage, and are close with the Quapaw. In the traditional migration of the group, after the Quapaw had first separated therefrom, the main body divided at the month of Osage r., the Osage moving up that stream and the Omaha and Ponca crossing Missouri r. and proceeding northward, while the Kansa ascended the Missouri on the s. side to the mouth of Kansas r. Here a brief halt was made, after which they ascended the Missouri on the s. side until they reached the present N. boundary of Kansas, where they were attacked by the Cheyenne and compelled to retrace their steps. They settled again at the month of Kansas r., where the Big Knives, as they called the whites, came with gifts and induced them to go farther w. The native narrators of this tradition give an account of about 20 villages occupied successively along Kansas r. before the setth'mentat Council Grove, Kans., whence they were finally removed to their reservation in Indian Ter. Marquette's autograph map, drawn probably as early as 1674, places the Kansa a considerable distance directly w. of the Osage and some distance s. of the Omaha, indicating that they were then out Kansas r. The earliest recorded notice of the Kansa i± by Juan de Oflate, who went from San (labriel, N. Mex., in 1601, till he met the " Escansaques," who lived 100 leagues to the N. F., near the "Panana," or Pawnee. It is known that the Kansa moved up Kansas r. in historic times as far as Big Blue river, and thence went to Council Grove in 1847. The move to the Big Blue must have taken place after 1723, for at that date Bourgmont speaks of the large village of the Quans (Kansa) as on a small river flowing from the north 30 leagues above Kansas river and near the Missouri. The village of the Missouri tribe was then 30 leagues below Kansas river and 60 leagues from the Quans village. Iberville estimated them at 1,500 families in 1702. A treaty of peace and friendship was made with them by the United States, Oct. 28, 1815. They were then on Kansas river at the month of Saline river, having been forced back from the Missouri by the Dakota. They occupied 130 earth lodges, and their number was estimated at 1,500. According to Lewis and Clark, they resided in 1804 on Kansas river, in two villages, one about 20 and the other 40 leagues from its mouth, with a population of 300 men. These explorers say that they formerly lived on the south bank of Missouri river about 24 leagues above the mouth of the Kansas, and were more numerous, but were reduced by the attacks of the Sauk and the Iowa. O' Fallon estimated their number in 1822 at 1,850. By the treaty of St Louis, June 3, 1825, they ceded to the United States their lands in north Kansas and south east Nebraska, and relinquished all claims they might have to lands in Missouri, but reserving for their use a tract on Kansas river. Here they were subject to attacks by the Pawnee, and on their hunts by other tribes, whereby their number was considerably reduced. Porter estimated their number in 1829 at 1,200; according to the Report of the Indian Office for 1843 the population was 1,588. By treaty at Methodist Mission, Kans., Jan. 14, 1846, they ceded to the United States 2,000,000 acres of the east portion of their reservation, and a new reservation was assigned them at Council Grove, on Neosho river, Morris county, Kans., where they remained until 1873. As this tract was overrun by settlers, it was sold, and with the funds another reservation was bought for them in Indian Territory next to the Osage; with the exception of 160 acres, reserved for school purposes, all their lands have now been allotted in severalty. The population diminished from about 1,700 in 1850 to 209 in 1905, of whom only about 90 were full-bloods. Much of this decrease has been due to epidemics. In the winter of 1852-53 smallpox alone carried off more than 400 of the tribe at Council Grove.